Lightning, Transients, and Human Safety.

Human safety and prevention of workplace hazards lightning, Transients and Human Safety

Expected Outcome: At the end of this course, the participant will have a sound understanding of the concepts of lightning and transients, lightning threat levels, and lightning safety issues of humans/livestock with respect to an industrial environment. The participant will also develop the skills of designing lightning safety guidelines and modules for various sites to safeguard the occupants.

Topic 1:

Introduction to lightning and lightning Characteristics


Lightning initiation, attachment and return stroke, characteristics and statistics of lightning generated currents and electric fields, multiplicity, types of lighting, induced voltages, lightning measurements, triggered lightning, laboratory simulations, current formulation, and electromagnetic field calculations. modeling of lightning as a current generator and voltage generator,  ball lightning, and ionospheric discharge phenomenon.

Topic 2:

Comparison of Lightning and other transients


Characteristics of HEMP, NEMP, ESD, UWB, HMWP, etc, and their comparison with lightning impulses (direct and LIOV) with respect to protection scenarios.

Topic 3:

Lightning density and accident statistics in Malaysia and elsewhere


Global distribution of lightning occurrence density, Spatio-temporal variation of annual frequency in Malaysia, avoidance of lightning hot spots, Nature of accidents, type of injuries, keraunamedicine

Topic 4:

Human safety and prevention of workplace hazards


Effects of direct strikes and side flashes, step potential, touch potential, human body model, accident circuit equivalent and permissible current limits, international guidelines, prevention of danger due to impulse induced GPR at various locations, prevention of shock due to earth faults at substations. health hazards, recommendations for outdoor workers, safety devices, Lightning warning systems.

Topic 5:

Discussion and tutorials


Calculation of occurrence probability, Q & A on human model issues, Designing of a safety model for an outdoor industrial site.

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