Transient Safety and Risk Assessment of Petrochemical Plants with HV/MV Systems
Expected Outcome: At the end of this course the participant will be able to have an overall assessment of lightning and ESD risk in a petrochemical environment and develop a protection module to minimize the probability of safety failure.
Transient power and energy that affect high-risk environments
Power and energy of lightning generated currents and induced voltage impulses, electrostatic discharges, and intentionally directed high power transients in the microwave region, Attenuation of energy through shielding material, resistive and inductive paths, and other filters, Transfer lightning and earth fault energy through resistive coupling as a result of ground potential rise (to nearby pipelines, petrochemical storages, explosive dumps, etc.), induced voltages in pipelines due to lightning currents in nearby parallel overhead lines, Assessment of the risk of breaching safety defenses by lightning transients.
Structural protection systems for buildings and storage facilities
Basic concepts and international views, Rolling sphere, protective angle and mesh methods, Designing of air-termination and down conductor systems, Designing of earthing network, Equipotential bonding, Use of reinforcement steel and foundation earth for lightning protection, Materials, installation technologies, and costs.
Protection of stationary systems against lightning and static electricity in a petrochemical environment
Statistics and threat levels due to lightning and ESD; Risk analysis for a given system; sparking of floating electrodes in fibrous, dusty, fumy, and other inflammable environments. Embedded, external, and isolated structural protection systems for concrete stacks, fixed and floating roof tanks, piers and jetties, plant perimeter fencing, etc.; Equipotential bonding of metal tanks, pipelines, loading arms, hoses, and other exposed parts; Calculation of safety distance under transient conditions for inflammable containers; Materials, installation technologies and costing, Regular maintenance and record-keeping.
Protection of moving systems
Safety of bulk road vehicles, rail tank wagons, pressure vessels, rotating machines etc. and loading facilities against lightning and ESD; Protection of insulating joints.
Lightning Threats of HV and MV systems
Calculation of strike probability to transmission lines, Traveling waves in transmission and distribution Lines, Cases of lightning accidents and damage in transmission and distribution systems, Threat analysis, and risk assessment.
Protection scenario of transmission lines
Surge impedance and protection techniques of towers, poles and mounted devices Shielding by OHGW and other grounding routes, Grounding technologies and materials, Lightning and transient performance of single and combined insulation materials, Insulation coordination, Critical flashover voltage and voltage-time characteristics, the technology of surge suppressors and lightning arresters, application of arresters in power transmission lines.
Protection techniques of MV distribution systems
Design and selection criteria of surge protectors for distribution systems, spark over voltage of arresters, Insulation coordination; coupling models of lightning into transmission lines, design concerns of lighting and transient protection systems for grid substations, generator housings, etc., protection of distribution transformers, grounding concerns of LV Transformers and improvement, International guidelines and codes of maintenance.
Predictive maintenance in HV/MV environment
Thermographic analysis of transformers switch gears, bus bars, control panels, etc: infrared cameras & other sensors, scanning methodology, data analysis and planning of disaster avoidance; Grounding system investigation: destructive & nondestructive, weak link detection, maintenance of grounding systems in the corrosive environment; High-pot testing of cabling systems, safety regulations, and internationally accepted procedures; Arch-flash avoidance in grid switching devices and MV switch gears; Work-force administration to avoid occupational hazards and outdoor disasters.
Personal safety in a petrochemical environment
Safety concerns in a hazardous atmosphere and safety concerns of workers: prevention of electrical hot spots, direct strikes and side flashes, step potential, touch potential, international guidelines, health hazards, insulation layers in switchyards, Proximity calculation for personal safety, recommendations for outdoor workers, safety devices, Lightning warning systems.
Discussion and tutorials
Q & A on personal safety in the hazardous environment. Development of a company policy document for ensuring lightning and ESD risk free petrochemical environment.